The Hierarchical Origin and Structure of the Universe and Society

This essay presents a model of how the universe including the social part of it originated. In contrast to the liberal Evolution/Big Bang Theory and the conservative theory of Creationism, this model presents a theory of origins for moderates. One problem with the liberal and conservative theories is that they rely on magical explanations. Conservatives rely on divine miracles while liberals rely on natural selection and chance with the idea that given enough time anything can happen. Such explanations are not satisfactory because magical explanations are a means of not explaining. The model presented here avoids such explanations.

The conservative theory of Creationism is popular with some Christians. This view teaches that God created the Universe and the Earth about 6000 years ago, shortly before God’s creation of Adam. Adherents often call their view Biblical Creationism as they claim that their view is taught by the Bible.

However, the Bible does not teach this view and, as will be shown later, contradicts it. In regard to creation, chapter 1 verse 1 of the book of Genesis states only that “In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth.” It does not specify when this creation occurred. Verse 2 starts with “Now the earth was formless and empty, darkness was over the surface of the deep…” indicating that earth as a planet fully existed. A reading of the remainder of the chapter indicates that the earth had been covered with water, much as it was during the later flood of Noah’s time. The Earth also was apparently covered with a heavy fog such that the surface of the water was covered in darkness. Such a condition suggests the Earth had a previous history and that there may have existed a prior civilization on its surface that was destroyed with flood waters. In any event no physical creation of the earth or the universe is mentioned after verse 1, nor is a date suggested as to when such creation might have happened.

As far as the first chapter or two of Genesis is concerned, the Creationist account of origins is unsupported. There did occur a six day period of so-called creation during which God removed the clouds of darkness as well as some of the water covering the Earth. In addition he created  Adam and Eve as well as animals and plants. Such creation did not entail the creation of something out of nothing but was merely the moving around of material atoms such as when an artist creates a work of art.

One might reject Creationism because it does not conservatively adhere to what is written in the Bible. It can be regarded as a liberal theory, an allegedly necessary modernization to the Bible.

Bible Teachings Relevant to Origins

Besides verses in the first chapter of Genesis, the Bible contains other verses relevant to the origins of the universe. Many of these contradict Creationist assumptions. When these teachings are related to each other, a picture of origins emerges from which one can construct a Biblical model of how the universe came to be.

The Bible teaches the following points:

1. Angels Existed before the Earth Did.

“‘Where were you when I laid the earth’s foundation? Tell me, if you understand. Who marked off its dimensions? Surely you know! Who stretched a measuring line across it? On what were its footings set, or who laid its cornerstone—while the morning stars sang together and all the angels shouted for joy?’” (Job 38:4-7) [Translator’s note: the word translated angels here is the Hebrew for sons of God.]

2. Angels are Material Beings.

“When human beings began to increase in number on the earth and daughters were born to them, the sons of God saw that the daughters of humans were beautiful, and they married any of them they chose. … The Nephilim were on the earth in those days—and also afterward—when the sons of God went to the daughters of humans and had children by them. They were the heroes of old, men of renown” (Gen 6:1-4).

These sons of God, better known as angels, are clearly corporeal as they do not just appear in corporeal form, but have actual children through human wives. These angels apparently were mightier than ordinary humans as they could physically take as wives any human women they wanted. Presumably human men could not stop them. Genesis indicates these angels were not as good looking as humans, or at least their women were not. They may have looked similar to evolutionists’ depiction of cave men. The angels were similar enough genetically to humans in that they could have children by them. However, they differed genetically from humans in that their hybrid children were notable enough for the Bible to remark on, more so than the angels themselves. Versions of the Bible other than the New International Version (NIV) translated the Hebrew word Nephilim as “giants,” indicating the hybrids were giants. The NIV translators of the Bible were unsure of this translation and left the word Nephilim untranslated, but the hybrids probably were giants as it is difficult to imagine what other hybrid condition would make them as notable.

Other angels in the Bible are described as material beings as they have wings such as the cherubim or seraphim or living creatures that surround God’s throne:

“I saw the Lord, high and exalted, seated on a throne; and the train of his robe filled the temple. Above him were seraphim, each with six wings: With two wings they covered their faces, with two they covered their feet, and with two they were flying. … Then one of the seraphim flew to me with a live coal in his hand, which he had taken with tongs from the altar.” (Is 6:1-2, 6) (See also Ez 1, Ez 10, Rev 4)

One must presume these angels are also corporeal, biological beings. There is nothing in these descriptions to suggest that they are metaphorical. In seven Bible verses in five books of the Bible, God is described as “enthroned between the cherubim” and such a representation is also incorporated in the design of the Ark of the Covenant which sat in the Holy of Holies in the Hebrew temple.

Angels are regarded by many believers as purely spiritual beings rather than material beings. In some Bible passages they are depicted as invisible and presumably spiritual. However many angels may have once been corporeal but have died and exist only as spirits. Given that Lucifer’s rebellion against God introduced many evils into the universe, it is not at all implausible that death would be one of these evils and that many corporeal angels have simply died including righteous ones.

The Bible indicates that demons as fallen angel spirits have a special love for possessing human bodies. It is hard to imagine why such spirits would enjoy possession unless they once had bodies themselves and felt impoverished by not having them.

“When an impure spirit comes out of a person, it goes through arid places seeking rest and does not find it. Then it says, ‘I will return to the house I left.’ When it arrives, it finds the house unoccupied, swept clean and put in order. Then it goes and takes with it seven other spirits more wicked than itself, and they go in and live there. And the final condition of that person is worse than the first.” (Matt 12:43-45)

Since biological angels existed before Adam and even before the creation of the Earth, they would have needed a material universe in which to live. To sustain themselves they would have needed food in the form of plants. They would also have needed planets to live on and on which to grow plants. The universe would have had to exist for them.

Outside of the Earth and the Sun, humans have little need for the universe. It perhaps makes more sense to view humans as late colonizers on the ruins of an old angelic civilization.

3. God and the Son of God are Material Beings.

Jesus is described many places in the Bible as the only begotten Son of God[1] who was with God in the beginning[2]. If Jesus was with God in the beginning, he was the Son of God before he became human. Thus his sonship is independent of his human birth in Bethlehem. Prior to his human birth the Son of God is typically called the Logos by theologians to refer to him before he became the man Jesus. Logos is Greek for “Word” and the term arises from the verse, “In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God and the Word was God.” (John 1:1 NIV)

In order to be a son, the Logos had to have been born or created directly out of the material substance of God, much as human sons are created out of cells from their parents. If God had a son, God must be a material being and so must his son. If God is purely a spirit, there is no known way that he could have a son.

Besides having a son, the Bible elsewhere indicates God is a material being for it states that God will dwell among his people (Rev 21:3) and the city in which he will dwell will shine “with the glory of God” (Rev 21:11).

4. The Son of God is a Finite but Divine Being.

The Bible makes clear that unlike the Father, the Son of God is a finite being in that he shares many characteristics of finite beings. He can be hungry (Luke 4:2), he can be tired and has slept (Matt 8:24), he can die (Matt 27:50), and he is not all knowing[4]. He must be finite in age as he was begotten as a son. If he had always existed, then he was never begotten. He also told followers “The Father is greater than I” (John 14:28).

Despite being generally finite, the Son possesses eternal life, a divine characteristic that he inherited from the Father. Following his death and resurrection he is able to share this life with whomever he chooses.

The Bible makes clear that the Son is the sole source of eternal life. Because of this fact the Son has supreme social authority. He is supreme Lord. All must ultimately humble themselves to his authority or face perdition. One cannot end run the Son by appealing to the Father for salvation because the Father has given all authority on the matter to the Son.[5] The Son is worthy of worship as is the Father, but he is not his equal.

5. Angels are Biological “Sons of God.”

Angels are called “sons of God” in the Bible.[6] Such a term is perhaps the proper name for angels as “angel” is simply a term that means messenger. Angels cannot be direct sons of God as Jesus is the only begotten Son of God. Therefore they must be descendants of God through his Son. Thus the Son of God as the Logos must have had descendants, beings who were born or made out of his physical substance or cells. These descendants in turn must have had descendants who were created in a similar manner. All of these descendants are commonly called angels. The Bible indicates that at least one hundred million angels were present at the throne scene in Revelation (Rev 5:11). Because of this number, there presumably were numerous generations of angels. Some of these included Lucifer and all the angels who rebelled with him.

6. Angels are Extraterrestrials.

Genesis describes God’s creation of humans and animals, but does not describe where the sons of God who later mated with humans came from. These sons of God could not have been living on the Earth just prior to Adam’s creation as it was “formless and empty.” Thus they must be of extraterrestrial origin. Presumably they came from another planet. One might assume that they came to Earth using spacecraft, but perhaps they had some other means of arriving. Corporeal angels may have come to Earth to assist in the creation of Adam and Eve. Conceivably they engaged in genetic engineering or cell cloning to form Adam as well as to form Eve out of his rib. Perhaps not all the angels left or there were stowaways who came along and did not return. The New Testament may refer to these sons of God when it mentions “angels who … abandoned their proper dwelling” (Jude 1:6).

7. Humans are a Specially Created Race.

When referring to angels, the Bible does not use the term “sons of God,” metaphorically because it expressly distinguishes them from humans. Humans are not sons of God because they descended from Adam who was created and not himself biologically descended from God or any of his descendants.

Since there were sons of God on the Earth after Adam who were biologically similar to humans, one might wonder why God did not use one of them, perhaps a particularly righteous one, to serve as an Adam substitute and generate the race that populated the earth. The Bible indicates that God planned to use the race on Earth to give birth to a Savior, an individual who would be the incarnation of his only begotten Son. Had the race on Earth been descendants of God then the Son of God as an incarnate person would be a descendant of himself. Such a situation raises an apparent contradiction that God presumably wanted to avoid by creating an entirely new race.[12]

A later section in this essay presents evidence that following Lucifer's rebellion, angels suffered from genetic mutations caused by environmental radiation. So much so that common animals originated from some of these mutations, and that these animals in turn underwent further mutation. While not becoming animals, the race of angels noted in Genesis presumably suffered from similar mutations as animals, mutations they accumulated over the innumerable generations of their existence. As noted above they probably were no great beauties as the males found human women particularly beautiful. The angels apparently had a suppressed mutant trait of giantism and some of their children with humans likely inherited genes for giantism while not inheriting the corresponding suppression genes.

Since the angels could interbreed with humans, Adam and Eve likely were direct copies of the non-mutated ancestors of these angels. The Bible appears to confirm this notion as it says that humans were created in the image of God (Gen 1:27). All non-mutated descendants of God would have by inheritance reflected His image.

One of the reasons God created the human race may have been so that his Son did not have to incarnate as a mutant. In the Old Testament God always required the sacrifice of a lamb without blemish. He would have been offended if someone tried to sacrifice a lamb with an obvious genetic defect. Thus it would not have been fitting if his Son, the Lamb of God, had genetic defects, even if these were mutations that seem innocuous.

8. Angels Were Originally Sexless, Being Neither Male Nor Female.

Early in the universe, the biological reproduction of angels apparently did not involve sex, at least not in the early generations. God did not have a wife when he had his only begotten Son. The Son could not have had a wife as no one yet existed save for the Father. Presumably angels were initially sexless, being neither male nor female.

9. The Universe and the Son of God were Created Together.

The Bible indicates that the Son of God was the firstborn of creatures[7]. As a created being he would have needed to eat. Thus, along with his Son, God must have created at least one plant, as food, for his Son to eat. Since plants are made of matter and God was the only material entity in the universe, he would have needed to create a plant out of his own substance.

The Bible mentions the Tree of Life which is unusual in that all who partake of its fruit will live forever[8]. Like the Logos, the Tree of Life has a divine characteristic of providing eternal life, specifically eternal life for the body just as the Son provides eternal life for the soul. Because it possesses eternal life innately, one can infer that the Tree of Life inherited this divine characteristic by descending directly from God. The Tree of Life must have arisen out of God’s substance just as a descendant plant arises out of the substance of its parent plant.

Besides having a plant to eat, the Logos would have needed a planet on which to reside and on which the Tree of Life could grow. Thus God would have needed to create a planet for his Son. This planet could have initially been quite small. It only needed to have a surface area sufficient for one person, the Logos. Within this area the Logos could have been sustained by the Tree of Life and by newer plants which descended from it. This planet can be referred to as Heaven or Planet Heaven as it is the native planet on which the Son of God lives and on which he will have his throne.

One can view this planet as emerging from God as a small moon just as the moons of Jupiter and Saturn presumably emerged from their respective planets. Since the planet was a generic entity, it must have also functioned as a star. Presumably it was largely transparent and radiant.

Since it came from God, one can assume that the planet inherited a form of eternal life. In order for the universe as we know it to come into existence, the planet would have had needed to grow and produce other planets or heavenly bodies. For such growth and production to occur, the planet needed the capability to create an endless amount of matter. Such a capability can be referred to as material eternal life.

The planet, which is finite, would not actually create matter in the sense of creation out of nothing. The planet is rooted in God, who is infinite in mass and capable of supplying an endless amount of mass or energy.

Scientific Evidence

Before proceeding with describing the development and growth of the planet and its creation of other planets and ultimately the known universe, it is important to pause and briefly describe the scientific basis of the growth and reproduction  of planets.

Growing Earth Theory and the Growth of Planets

Much evidence exists that planets grow over time. The field of study that examines this evidence is known as Growing Earth Theory or Expanding Earth Theory. Much of this evidence shows that the Earth has grown over time, but there is also evidence that other bodies such as the Moon, Mars, and planetary moons such as Europa also grow.[9]

According to Growing Earth Theory the continents of North and South America were once joined to the continents of Eurasia and Africa about 185 million years ago. These continents split apart as the Earth grew and its surface area expanded, creating the Atlantic Ocean. When the continents were joined together the radius of the Earth must have been approximately 52% of its current value because at this value the outlines of the continents fit together.[18] The continents do not fit together with the radius a larger value because a larger Earth is not sufficiently curved. The continents were also joined together across the Pacific Ocean at this 52% value, although it is not obvious how they fit as surface area of the Pacific Ocean expanded much faster than that of the Atlantic.

Age of Oceanic Crust
Age of Oceanic Crust as determined by dating of drilled core samples taken from the ocean floor: Red & Oranges < 40 Million Years, Purple > 154 Million Years.

This evidence of how the Earth must have grown in order to explain the shape of the continents is very compelling. But there exists much additional evidence that other bodies such as the Moon, Mars, and the moons of Jupiter and Saturn have undergone expansion. For the Earth to expand as significantly as it has, it must be gaining mass. The major objection to a growing Earth is that there exists no clear theory to explain why it is growing. But such an objection is not compelling. If there existed no satisfactory theory that explains how the Moon originated, one would not deny that the Moon exists.

While no clear theory exists to explain why planets and moons grow, observational evidence suggests that moons are located near their associated planets in order to maximize their growth. This evidence suggests that moons grow at the expense of their associated planets. Thus if a moon of Jupiter gains a million tons in mass, Jupiter loses an equivalent amount of mass. The evidence also suggests that the rate of growth declines as the distance between a moon and its associated planet increases. Thus if a moon of Jupiter moves to a higher orbit or totally escapes from orbit, the rate at which the moon will gain mass from Jupiter will decline.

The Earth is not a moon of any planet, so it presumably grows at the expense of the Sun. The Sun regularly transmits gravitational energy to the Earth, so in theory at least, it transmits mass as well, as energy is equivalent to mass. Over every period of six months the gravitational field of the Sun completely reverses the motion of the Earth in relation to distant stars. Such reversal is equivalent to decelerating the huge mass of the Earth from its orbital speed of 70 thousand miles per hour to a complete stop and then accelerating the same mass to 70 thousand miles per hour in the opposite direction.

If one assumed that this same energy were transmitted to the Earth and stored as mass, calculations show that the mass of the Earth would double every 35 million years. Evidence of the growth of the Earth over the past 185 million years only indicates that the mass of the Earth is doubling every 70 million years. Thus the Sun only needs to transmit half this energy. The theory regarding the transmission of mass is affected by the proximity of the receiving body to the transmitting body. Calculations show that closely orbiting planetary moons should double in mass at a significantly faster rate than that of Earth. Metis, a small moon of Jupiter, should double in mass about every 50 thousand years. Io, one of the largest moons of Jupiter, should double in mass every million years.[10] Observation indicates Io is seismically very active.

The Reproduction of Planets through Moon Creation

Observation of planets such as Jupiter and Saturn indicates that planets reproduce themselves by creating moons out their planetary masses. There seems to be no plausible explanation of how so many moons got to their current locations except that they arose from the larger bodies which they orbit. Also, in the case of moons that are presumably growing fast, it would appear such moons could not have existed very long ago. In the case of Io which is presumably doubling in mass every million years, it would appear that it could not have existed 50 million years ago. It must have suddenly appeared as a smaller moon at some point in the past, and to do so it likely came from Jupiter.

When planetary reproduction is coupled with planetary growth, a cyclical process becomes possible since newly created moons can grow to full size planets and create moons of their own. This process indicates that planets can be considered to be living entities as they satisfy the two conditions of life: growth and reproduction.

Since the first planet must have emerged from the substance of God, as there are no other substances that it could have emerged from, the planet must be a living entity as God himself is a living God.

Once it is accepted that heavenly bodies are living, it becomes easy to explain the origin of the estimated one septillion stars that populate the universe. After emerging from the living God, the first heavenly body reproduced itself. Its descendants in turn kept reproducing themselves until all the stars, planets, and moons in the universe were created.[11]

Early Inhabitants of Heaven

After his creation, the Son of God or Logos grew up on Planet Heaven. The Tree of Life and its descendants provided him food. Upon maturing the Logos had descendants who were born or created out of his substance. The Logos was a generic living being. His descendants began differentiating into different biological types. These descendants inherited biological characteristics of the Logos, but they did not inherit all of them, and different descendants inherited different characteristics that their siblings did not possess. One could observe differences among them just as one observes differences among common animals in that some animals are mammals, others birds, and still others are reptiles. These descendants were not common animals as they were capable of progress just as humans are. It appears likely that they all had hands and stood upright. Otherwise their hands would have served as feet and it is difficult to understand how they would be capable of much constructive work.

The cherubim/seraphim/living creatures who surround God’s throne had “what looked like human hands” seen under their wings (Ezek 10:8). These were fully functional as one was observed by the prophet Ezekiel picking up fire and handing it to another being, and by the prophet Isaiah as picking up a burning coal with tongs. These angels had three pairs of wings, so presumably they had three pairs of hands. These hands may have been attached to arms under the wings or to the wings themselves, possibly with arm extensions. They had feet and when they stood still they lowered their wings (Ezek 1:24). Initially these creatures may not have had wings, or not have had three pairs of them, but developed them as they advanced. The Genesis angels who interbred with humans presumably had no wings and had a basic human appearance.

The Origin of Species

Eventually a generation of descendants from the Logos came to exist who gave birth only to twins, a male twin and a female twin. Like identical human twins, each pair of twins began as a single cell embryo which divided into two and the twin embryos developed independently. These twins would later interbreed. The twins and their descendants would constitute a closed race or species. Since the species parents had genes that differed (sex genes being an example) each descendant would generally have a different combination of genes inherited from them and thus have different genetic idenities. The total gene pool would remain constant. Humans have a similar origin as these descendants in that Adam and Eve, our species parents, began life as one person in that Eve was created out of Adam's rib.

Each species may have inhabited different geographical territories and formed separate nations. If so, the birth of such nations is recapitulated in the Bible by the nations that descended from the Biblical patriarchs. Lot, the nephew of Abraham, fathered the nations of Moab and Ammon, while Abraham’s son, Isaac, fathered the nations of Israel and Edom. One might note that Lot and Isaac were of the same generation as they shared common grandparents.

Higher level angels maintained the ability to create new races or species by giving birth to new offspring. Humans can be regarded as made a “little lower than the angels” (Heb 2:7) as they lack the ability of the higher angels to produce entire races.

Origins of the First City, the Heavenly Jerusalem

As the population grew, a settlement was built near God the Father who was physically separate from the planet. The Father, though infinite, appeared finite in size. The Bible indicates He could dwell among his people (Rev 21:3) and the city in which He dwelt “shone with the glory of God” (Rev 21:11). His Son, the Logos, dwelt here near the Tree of Life.

Expansion of Heaven and the Rise of Mount Zion

The planet expanded in radius and surface area to accommodate the growing population. As it expanded a body of water opened up on the far side of the planet and this body began expanding faster than the land. The water became the sea while the settlement/city and its surroundings became an island. The elevation of land on the island was controlled by activity on its surface. The planet had a plastic geology, and the island, due to its weight, tended to sink into the sea. Plants on the island acted to reverse this process. When rain fell on the plants of the island, the rain water lost gravitational energy as it moved from the leaves of the plants down their branches and stems. Since for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction, the plants gained gravitational energy as though they were pulled up. Due to the attachment of plants to the ground, the plants transferred gravitational energy to the island.

The taller plants captured more gravitational energy than the shorter plants because the rain water on the former had a longer distance to drop than on the latter. Since the taller plants tended to be cultivated near the center of the island, the center, over the course of years and decades, became more elevated than the periphery of the island. In addition, the tall buildings in center of the settlement/city acted to capture much gravitational energy, raising the land there to the highest elevation on the island.

The island, thus, essentially became a mountain, as its elevation rose as one moved inland. The elevation peaked in the center. The Bible refers to this mountain as Mount Zion (Heb 12:22).

The Development of an Urban Hierarchy

As the island continued to expand, the inhabitants who farmed or used the land near its periphery found traveling to the city increasingly costly as the distance to it became greater. To save traveling costs these inhabitants established and patronized new settlements near the periphery of the island. Due to the buildings in the new settlements and the plant use surrounding them, the land near the new settlements began to rise and the settlements became hills surrounding the central elevation of the island.

As the hills of the new settlements formed, the planet continued to expand and moved increasingly out of gravitational equilibrium. Land was increasingly on one side of the planet and ocean on the other side. The planet exerted forces on the island to split it apart, but the central elevation bound it together such that it was not easily split. However, the settlement hills created weak points and the planet began separating them from the island. The settlement hills did not move significantly by themselves; instead the surface area expansion of the planet occurred between the settlement hills and the island, causing rifts that filled with sea water. Each of the new settlements and the elevated land surrounding it became a separate island.

Over time as the planet continued to expand these new islands drifted over the surface of the planet to positions approximately equidistant from each other and from the first island. Real movement of these islands was quite slow and due only to the plasticity of planet’s surface. Most of the observed movement was due to the expansion of the planet which added surface area to the planet in such a way as to maximize the gravitational equilibrium of the planet.

The new islands expanded in surface area, rose in elevation, and increased in population. The primary island continued to grow, albeit more slowly than the new islands. Land was cheaper on the new islands since, on average, they were not as elevated, and energy captured by plants on the new islands would uplift more new land than the same energy captured by plants on the original island. The settlements on the new islands grew into cities.

The sea between the islands served an economic purpose as it provided an inexpensive means of shipping goods across the surface of the planet. Technology was as yet primitive, and land transportation across long distances was costly when compared to transporting goods in ships.

As each secondary island grew large, third order settlements were established on the periphery of each island. These establishments led to the settlements breaking away from the secondary islands and forming third order islands. The third order islands moved to positions roughly equidistant from each other and from the secondary islands which gave rise to them. The third order islands could not move too far as they were constrained by other third order islands that arose from other secondary islands.

One might note that the islands behaved as though they were two-dimensional living beings. They grew over time and reproduced themselves by creating descendant islands.

In time the third order / third generation of islands grew large and produced a fourth generation which led to fifth and higher generations of islands. A hierarchy of islands was created which also constituted a hierarchy of mountains and hills and a hierarchy of cities, towns, and villages.

Limits on Heaven's Expansion

As land on the planet became increasingly valuable and land transportation improved, the need for the sea decreased. The sea shrank and then disappeared. The islands joined together but still maintained their identity by functioning as tectonic plates between which the surface of the planet expanded. The islands/plates also maintained their identity as separate mountains and cities. These island/plates still reproduced themselves by creating descendant plates as the expanding surface of the planet allowed them.

The planet grew in mass and volume. In economic terms, the mass of the planet constituted a stockpile of wealth accumulated by the inhabitants. As wealth, it was also an investment which paid dividends as its surface area provided valuable land which could be used for productive activities such as farming.

One problem, however, for this investment, is that the return on investment decreased as the investment grew larger. Specifically, for every eight-fold increase in the mass and volume of the planet, the surface area only increased four-fold.

Another problem was that as the planet grew in size, its gravitational field increased and its surface gravity also increased. Beyond a certain point increases in surface gravity were detrimental. Such increases might require expensive reinforcement of buildings or their reconstruction.

Additionally as the planet grew, it became unstable. Instability can be observed in the cases of stars visible from Earth. Most of these stars are members of binary or multiple star systems. The only logical explanation for these systems is that each system was once composed of single star which through instability split into two or more stars. Such instability apparently arose after stars became too dense as a result of nucleosynthesis or became unbound from a gravitational well created by other stars. The basic feature of this instability is that it imposes an upper limit on the size of heavenly bodies of a fixed density for a given location. Quantum field theory can explain this instability as a result of the self-repulsion of the gravitational field.[13]

Planetary Descendants

Instability did not cause the planet as a whole to split apart, but it did cause a portion of its high density core to split off from the rest of the core and form what may be called a proto-planet. The continuing growth of the planet increased its instability and caused the proto-planet to move towards the surface of the planet. When the proto-planet reached the surface of the planet, it split off from the planet and formed a self-gravitating body or moon. The moon grew while slowly rising in height above the planet. The moon absorbed gravitational energy from the planet which it converted into mass. The transfer of mass to the moon was energetically favorable as it lowered the self-repulsion of the planet. Eventually the moon rose above the atmosphere of the planet. It may have kept part of the atmosphere for itself or generated its own atmosphere later as its gravity became sufficient to hold one.

The moon did not orbit the planet but bobbed up and down about an equilibrium point, alternately approaching the planet, then receding from it in a regular fashion. The moon was colonized as conditions on it improved and its surface area expanded. It remained physically and economically dependent on its parent planet until it matured into a full size planet.

The parent planet created additional moons on all sides of it. The creation of moons brought an end to the self-repulsive forces in the interior of the planet as this repulsion shifted to exterior repulsion between the planet and its moons.

The 4 Largest Moons of Jupiter
The 4 Largest Moons of Jupiter

The planet was limited in its expansion for if it became too large, its surface gravity would rise above an economically ideal level. However the moons allowed it to expand further and still maintain an ideal surface gravity. The repulsive pressure of the moons’ gravitational fields acted to reduce the surface gravity on the planet. This reduction in pressure is familiar to the coastal inhabitants of the Earth, for when Earth’s moon is overhead or directly underneath one’s location, gravity is reduced as witnessed by the high tides that occur then.

Growth of the First Galaxy

Eventually the moons grew into full size planets and produced new planets of their own. This third generation of planets in turn matured and produced further generations of planets. The growing population of planets grew spherically outward from Planet Heaven. Since the planets were radiant and were stars as well as planets, the sphere of stars became what is commonly known as a globular cluster. Globular clusters are baby galaxies. The cluster expanded outward to form a spherically shaped galaxy (also known as an elliptical galaxy of zero eccentricity). The inhabitants of Planet Heaven and their descendants colonized all the new planets that were created. They used the surfaces of the planets to house their burgeoning population and to engage in economic activity.

Planet Differentiation

Like angels, planets differentiated as successive generations of planets emerged through moon creation. Different planets inherited different abilities to produce minerals and other substances. Some were more efficient at producing gold, others silver, gemstones, or baser metals. Differentiated planets varied in visual appearance. Differentiation continued until a generation of moons was created in which each moon split into two after its emergence from its parent and became twin moons. These moons would develop independently. One twin would become an opaque planet like the Earth on which living beings could dwell and plants could grow. The other twin would become a luminescent star, capable of providing light and heat to opaque planets.

Formation of Solar Systems

It became common for each opaque planet to pair up with a star of roughly equal mass and for both to orbit around their common center of mass. These pairings might be called marriages. Each pair became a solar system which could move as one entity throughout the galaxy, with the star providing heat and light to the inhabited planet. Like the planet, the star may have possessed a population, though not on its surface. This population would have dwelt in a cloud of orbits above the star, collecting energy or engaging in energy intensive manufacturing.

Each planet-star pair also produced descendant moons which became opaque planets or luminescent stars. It may be that only one member of the pair was capable of producing descendant bodies. If so planets or perhaps stars could be considered females and the opposite type considered males. The planets Jupiter and Saturn presumably produce descendant bodies, but these planets are considered gas giants and may simply be stars that have not fully matured.

For simplicity in the narrative, these solar systems will be regarded as planets with the assumption that the planets in these systems had stars attached to them.

Galaxy Oscillation

The descendent planets in the galaxy alternately moved towards the center and away from it. Such movement is inferred from spectroscopic observation of present day galaxies. According to the theory of relativity, the mass of any galaxy warped the space within it; this meant that a galaxy contains a greater volume of space than would be inferred by standard geometry. As the planets moved towards the center of the galaxy, space within it was concentrated even more. As a result, some of the space fused, destroying a small volume of space and converting it into gravitational energy. This energy was absorbed by the planets and acted to accelerate them away from the center of the galaxy.[14]

As the planets moved away from the center of the galaxy, the concentration and fusion of space decreased. Gravity acted to decelerate the outward movement of the planets until they reversed direction. It then accelerated their inward movement until they began to concentrate and fuse space again. Then the cycle repeated itself again and again.

Since there is no friction in outer space, over time the planets should in theory acquire so much energy that they escape being gravitationally bound by the galaxy and fly off into extra-galactic space. However, such behavior did not generally occur as the planets absorbed much of the energy by converting it into mass.

The weight of the galaxy upon the innermost planets created permanent high tide forces covering the entire surfaces of these planets and significantly lowered the surface gravity of each planet compared to what it would have been otherwise. For the planets in the outer parts of the galaxy, the tidal force was stronger along an axis intersecting the galaxy center. This force acted to elongate the planets along this axis similarly to the manner in which the Earth is elongated along an axis intersecting the Moon. High ocean tides occur along this axis.

Tides of the Earth
Elongation of the Earth Along the Earth-Moon Axis

Counterbalancing the tidal force of elongation, each planet rotated about this axis, creating a centripetal bulge about an equator that offset its polar elongation. All the planets rotated in the same direction when viewed from the center of the galaxy. The planets had to rotate faster the more distant they were from the center of the galaxy in order to offset their polar elongations. The existence of such rotation is inferred from present day galaxies.[15] The rotation was caused by the intrinsic spin or angular momentum of the carrier particles of the gravitational field. Planets in the outer portions of the galaxy did not need to rotate especially fast as they formed solar systems in which an opaque planet and luminescent star stored angular momentum by revolving about each other.

The inhabitants of a planet could manipulate the geology of their planet and cause it to expand or contract. Such expansion/contraction absorbed or released gravitational energy and could bring the planet’s radial motion to a temporary stop or even reverse it slightly. The inhabitants also had a means of using the rotation of their planet to get their planet to sway in directions they chose during its radial ascent or descent. Because of these manipulations, each planet was equivalent to a sailboat in that it was capable of being piloted to a limited range of locations.

Interplanetary Trade

Trade in economic goods occurred between the inhabitants of the planets of the galaxy. Planets regularly commuted to and from locations along a radial path directed towards the galactic center. During the innermost part of a planet’s commute, when it was closest to the galactic center, it would rendezvous with an inner planet that was on the outermost part of its commute. While in close proximity the two planets used space shuttles or other technology to quickly and inexpensively exchange large quantities of goods. When a planet was on the outermost part of its commute, it would rendezvous with an outer planet that was on the innermost part of its commute and exchange goods. By such means economic goods as well as persons could be transferred throughout the galaxy without requiring the use of long distance spacecraft.

The commutes of planets regularly took decades or centuries. The inhabitants of the galaxy lived forever and their economy operated over long distances of space and over long spans of time.

M89 Virgo Galaxy
Virgo Galaxy (center) containing an estimated 1 trillion stars.

Descendant Galaxies and the Expansion of the Universe

At some point while the galaxy continued to grow, the commutes of the outermost planets became too long. As a result, regional centers in the outer parts of the galaxy were established and nearby planets began commuting towards these centers. This commuting led to a concentration of planets in these centers. The concentration of planets, which was also a concentration of mass, led to stronger repulsive forces developing between the galaxy as a whole and each regional center. As a result, the regional centers and the planets associated with them broke away from the galaxy and became globular clusters or small secondary galaxies.

As these globular clusters grew in size, they moved further away from the galaxy and became full size galaxies, the first generation descendants of the original galaxy. These descendants moved out into unoccupied areas of the universe.

For this model the universe can be considered the three-dimensional surface of a four-dimensional hypersphere. More generally the universe is the hypersphere itself and empty three-dimensional space is its surface. The hypersphere arose directly from God’s substance, just as Planet Heaven did. Like Planet Heaven, the universe grew over time. As it grew it provided a greater volume of space in which planets and galaxies could be located.

As the descendant galaxies moved away from the original Galaxy, they could only move so far before they began to encounter each other on the other side of the hypersphere. The galaxies moved to positions approximately equidistant from each other and from the original Galaxy. Like the original Galaxy, these galaxies spawned descendant galaxies which in turn spawned their own descendants until there existed many generations of galaxies. The galaxies formed clusters and superclusters of galaxies. The largest galaxies today are observed at the center of superclusters.  The universe grew over time, increasing the volume of space and allowing room for more galaxies.

Coma Galaxy Cluster
The Coma Cluster of Galaxies

Descendant Universes and Metaverses

The universe itself may have spawned descendant universes. These would exist beyond our universe in four-dimensional space. Earth might even be in a descendant universe of the first one. It is not known how other universes could be detected or how individuals could travel from one to the other. One can also extend this model beyond four dimensions using hyperspheres of five, six, and higher dimensions. Nothing is known about these dimensions, but they serve as a path for continual progress.

Intergalactic Trade

Trade in economic goods occurred between galaxies through the use of hypervelocity planets. A planet would be designated a freighter and loaded up with trade goods to be sent to the destination galaxy. These goods would be collected from other planets in the origin galaxy. Before beginning its journey, the freighter would store up gravitational energy by expanding to perhaps many times its normal size. The freighter would then release this energy through contraction. The released energy would propel it out of the galaxy at high speed into the destination galaxy. The natural repulsion of planets in the destination galaxy would act to slow down the incoming freighter until the freighter was traveling slow enough that the goods on it could be retrieved. This basic behavior is observed by present day science in what are known as hypervelocity stars.

Lucifer's Rebellion

At a time when many generations of galaxies existed, the universe was ruled by God and by his Son, the Logos, who was the Supreme Being in the sense of being the supreme living creature. The universe had been a utopia since its founding. No evil had ever existed and no one had ever died. Progress occurred. New planets and galaxies formed. These events could be anticipated long in advance. Yet one day after billions of years of bliss, a unique event occurred that nobody foresaw which would have tremendous ramifications. A high angel named Lucifer began to think that he could rule as Supreme Being. He then began gathering followers in the hope that if he gathered enough, the Logos, who served as Supreme Being, would be forced to abdicate, or at least to share power.

Lucifer gained many followers and staged a rebellion. He succeeded to some extent and apparently ruled over his own kingdom, separate from that of the Logos. However, Lucifer did not have eternal life, which the Logos inherited from the Father. Eternal life fueled social and economic progress. Without it Lucifer’s kingdom began to regress. Lucifer and his followers grew more corrupt. Lucifer became known as Satan. One result of his rebellion is that trade was disrupted and products from the Tree of Life were no longer available to many. Consequently many angels began to age and eventually died. Races of angels on various planets began having fixed lifespans. Generations of angels succeeded one another as one generation was born and another one died.

Besides death, races of angels became subject to genetic mutations from environmental mutations which their bodies could not repair. These mutations were not inherited from God and were passed on to offspring. Over millions of years these mutations took their toll.

The Origin of Common Animals

One result of the many mutations is the origin of common animals. The Bible describes the creation of such animals in Genesis, but there is good reason to believe that many animals, perhaps different ones, existed long before Adam. Fossil evidence shows that especially large animals such as dinosaurs and giant dragonflies must have existed on the Earth at some time in the past. A problem with many of these animals is that they would have been too large to survive on present day Earth.[16] It seems that they must have existed at a time when the Earth was significantly smaller and its gravity significantly less, as postulated by growing earth theory. If one assumes the growth rate of the Earth is about the same as it is now, as determined by measurements of ocean floor spreading, then these large animals must have existed many millions of years ago and originated long before the creation of animals in Genesis. It is highly doubtful that that the Earth could have grown significantly in the 6000 or so years since the Genesis creation. One might assume the Genesis animals were copies of animals that had previously existed on the Earth or elsewhere in the universe.

Animals differ from humans and presumably also from angels in that they lack the ability to progress. A planet inhabited by animals such as ants, dogs, or chimpanzees would never progress even if humans tried to help them progress. Efforts by humans to help apes learn sign language and similar communication skills have never gone anywhere because such apes show no desire to use such skills among themselves.

Animals are similar to humans in that both possess genes encoded in DNA. Because humans possess the ability to progress while animals do not, there must be a genetic difference between them. Since a creature is either able to progress or not, this ability must be determined by a single gene. This gene can be designated a progress gene.

Angels must have had progress genes, but at some point during the eons of their existence as they were acquiring mutations, a descendant was born that lacked a working progress gene. This individual, though an animal, would have looked and behaved similar to his fellow angels as he shared their other genes. He may have been relatively intelligent. This animal presumably interbred with other angels as he was of the same species. Some of his descendants may have been regular angels that acquired progress genes from the other parent. However, others likely did not and were born full animals. Within a few generations a population of angel animals came into existence. These animals can be designated angeloids as they were largely identical to non-animal angels.

Angeloids were likely enslaved by their angel relatives. Angels likely used angeloids as biological robots. Angeloids could be worked long hours, fed gruel, and housed under poor conditions. If need be they could be harvested for organs or used to perform deadly tasks. There need not be any moral qualms about killing angeloids as they are just animals.

Since there were many races and species of angels, different species of angeloids may have arisen in different locations and at different times. Some may have been created through genetic engineering. Many of the angeloids that were enslaved likely escaped and developed in the wild. Wars between factions of angels may have depopulated many planets allowing angeloids free reign in many locations. Mutations of angeloids over long spans of time would have created numerous species of animals, some of which likely have representation on Earth today. The intelligence of angeloids declined and consequently they no longer had a normal need for hands as the use of hands requires an act of abstraction. Conceivably an angeloid could pick or prepare food with his hands before putting it into his mouth, but it became simpler for one to bite food with his mouth without using his hands as the end goal of satisfying appetite is accomplished more quickly. As a result the hands and arms of angeloids morphed into feet and these animals became four footed. Feet morphed into paws or hooves for superior mobility. For some animals like the tyrannosaurus rex, the arms shrank and became vestigial. Other animals had wings and the hands of these animals disappeared. Since mouths were used in preference to hands, the mouths of animals became stronger and morphed into snouts or beaks. 

Formation of Binary Stars, Elliptical and Spiral Galaxies

Another result of Lucifer's rebellion is that many planets broke contact with Planet Heaven, the source of material eternal life. As a result, over time many stars became denser as they converted significant amounts of their hydrogen fuel into helium. Since helium is much denser than hydrogen, many stars became unstable and split into binary stars. As the stars in each galaxy became denser or increased in number due to binary splits, galaxies too became unstable. Initially spherical in shape, many individual galaxies became elliptical in shape before splitting into a pair of galaxies. Since planets and stars in galaxies were spinning as well as revolving in solar system orbits, each of the newly created galaxies carried much net angular momentum and could not reform as smaller spherical galaxies. Instead they reformed as spiral galaxies, rotating in opposite directions.[17] One spherical galaxy split into the Milky Way galaxy, in which the Earth is located, and also into the Andromeda galaxy. Evidence indicated this split must have happened many millions of years ago. Thus Lucifer’s rebellion must have started some time before that.

Elliptical Galaxy
Elliptical Galaxy of Unknown Name and Location
Arp 271
Arp 271 Spirals Presumably Formed by the Breakup of a Spherical Galaxy

It is unknown if any sons of God with physical bodies still survive elsewhere in the universe. Perhaps they have all died as none are detectable from Earth. Even if they have all perished, the post-apocalyptic ruins of their once great civilization still remain, scattered over the night sky.

The Future of the Universe: The New Heavens and the New Earth

According to Bible prophecy the heavens and the earth will be destroyed in the not too distant future, after a thousand year rule by Christ on the Earth following his Second Coming (Rev 20:11). The elements will burn with fire (2 Peter 3:10) which may mean that all atomic particles will become unstable and disintegrate. Since Planet Heaven has material eternal life, it would appear that it could not totally be destroyed. Huge amounts of energy must have been flowing through it from God in the past on its way to distant stars when such entities were expanding. It would appear that the same rate of energy production would allow Planet Heaven to rapidly regenerate itself as well as surrounding bodies. Also it would appear that the energy content of the destroyed heavens might aid the regeneration of the universe. It is a good thing that the heavens will be destroyed; otherwise future inhabitants would have to make due with a polluted universe, full of exploded stars and mangled galaxies.

Another good feature of the recreated universe is that is that all mutated life forms will be destroyed. No common animals will remain nor will plants that are regarded as weeds. One will not have to worry about mosquitos or snakes or dandelions or poison ivy or bacteria or viruses.

The book of Revelation provides a description of Planet Heaven as it will exist. This description is presumably similar to how it once existed and exists today. Revelation calls Planet Heaven the New Earth as it will be the new home of humans after the old Earth is destroyed. It indicates that it has no sea (Rev 21:1) or sun (Rev 21:23) in conformity with the model presented here. The replacement for the Heavenly Jerusalem is called the New Jerusalem. This city is depicted as coming down out of heaven from God, so presumably the city is regenerated or created anew as one would think that the old city would not have left the surface. The city has a city wall with twelve gates, each cut from a single pearl, known informally as the pearly gates. The New Jerusalem is described as 12,000 stadia long, which is approximately 1400 miles. Revelation also indicates that the city is as wide and high as it is long. Since such a city is far too large to fit on the present day Earth, the New Earth must be significantly larger. Revelation also indicates that the city rests on a high mountain (Mt. Zion) which presumably is at least as high as the city itself.

In order to accommodate the New Jerusalem, the New Earth must have a radius about 1000 times that of present day Earth or about ten times the radius of the Sun. If its center were positioned with the center of the Earth, one would have to go 16 times the distance to the moon to reach its surface. At such a radius the New Jerusalem would be proportionally equivalent to an Earth city 1.4 miles in height. The surface area of the New Earth would be one million times that of present day Earth. Its volume and mass would be one billion times that of present day Earth.

If such a planet existed near present day Earth, its surface gravity would be far too crushing for the survival of beings similar to humans. One can infer that the surface gravity is reduced by the tidal forces exerted by many other heavenly bodies. Presumably the New Earth exists at the center of a large galaxy that is also in the center of a large supercluster of galaxies.

Revelation appears to indicate that the surface gravity of the New Earth is exceptionally light for it describes the New Jerusalem as coming down out of heaven from God, almost as though it floated down. There are reasons to believe that the surface gravity should have decreased as the Planet Heaven grew in size. Since the inhabitants of the planet had eternal life, they would have continued to grow throughout the centuries, perhaps slowly, but eventually surpassing any height limit. They might have grown to more than 50 feet in height. For such growth to occur, decreases in surface gravity would have to occur.

The wall of the city is excessively high for any present day Earth city as it is described as being 144 cubits or about 200 feet tall (Rev 21:17). Its height suggests there may be individuals 50 feet or taller in height who may be capable in a low gravity environment of jumping another 50 feet or more and scaling a 100 or higher wall. The wall offers the city protection from giants entering other than through the gates.

The surface gravity of the New Earth would have to much lower than that of present-day Earth to maintain an ideal air pressure. The atmosphere on the New Earth is presumably at least 1000 times thicker than that of present-day Earth. If the surface gravity on the New Earth was the same as that on present-day Earth, humans could not survive as the air pressure would be equivalent to the water pressure in the deepest part of the ocean, seven miles below the surface. It seems doubtful that humans would be comfortable with air pressure more than 10 times current levels, equivalent to the pressure 300 feet under water. Because of the need for a livable air pressure, it would appear that the surface gravity on the New Earth would be less than one-hundredth of the gravity on present-day Earth.

The End


[1] “For God so loved the world that he gave his one and only Son, that whoever believes in him shall not perish but have eternal life.” (John 3:16). “This is how God showed his love among us: He sent his one and only Son into the world that we might live through him.” (1 John 4:9).

[2] “In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. … The Word became flesh and made his dwelling among us. We have seen his glory, the glory of the one and only Son, who came from the Father, full of grace and truth.” (John 1:1, 14-15)

[4] “But about that day or hour no one knows, not even the angels in heaven, nor the Son, but only the Father.” (Matt 24:36 NIV).

[5] “Then Jesus came to them and said, ‘All authority in heaven and on earth has been given to me.’” (Matt 28:18) “No one who denies the Son has the Father; whoever acknowledges the Son has the Father also.” (1 John 2:23)

[6] “Now there was a day when the sons of God came to present themselves before the Lord, and Satan came also among them.” (Job 1:6 KJV) “Again there was a day when the sons of God came to present themselves before the Lord, and Satan came also among them to present himself before the Lord.” (Job 2:1 KJV)

[12] The incarnation of the Son as a human is somewhat mysterious as he would have already had a physical body as the Logos, from whom all the angel sons of God descended. Presumably the Logos died before his human incarnation. This first death raises a question of why it apparently did not bring about salvation and allow him to rise from the dead in the body of the Logos. This body would have differed from his human body as it would not have been male or female.

One possible solution is that the first death of the Logos was a natural death brought about by changed environmental conditions following the rebellion of Lucifer. Perhaps the evil of his second death, an intentional murder, was needed to bring about the good of salvation.

[7] “Who is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn of every creature.” (Col 1:15 KJV) Since firstborn sons in a family were considered pre-eminent over other sons, it is argued by some Bible commentators that the Greek word for firstborn means pre-eminent and that this verse is merely stating that the Son of God is pre-eminent over every creature. Such an argument seems aimed at avoiding a literal interpretation of the verse. It also leads to awkward translations such as that of the NIV which translates the verse “The Son is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn over all creation.”

In a similar verse, the Son of God calls himself "the beginning of the creation of God" (Rev 3:14 KJV). The NIV translates this verse "thr ruler of God's creation."

[8] “And the Lord God said, “The man has now become like one of us, knowing good and evil. He must not be allowed to reach out his hand and take also from the tree of life and eat, and live forever.” (Gen 3:22)

[9] See Neal Adams Growing Earth Videos.

[18] The 52% value assumes the interior of the Earth grew while the continents on its surface did not. Had the continents grown at the same rate as the interior, there would be no observed spreading of them. The assumption that the surface did not grow raises an unanswered question of why the Earth started growing at 52% of its current radius. It appears likely that the continents grew but at a slower rate than the interior. The continents may have begun separating from each other immediately after the Earth began its existence following its ejection from a parent body. The Earth at this time was presumably quite small with a radius less than 5% of its current one.

[10] These rates of doubling are calculated assuming that they are only growing half as fast as they conceivable could grow according to the Excel spreadsheet, Maximum Gravitational Expansion Rates.

[11] Evolutionists/Big Bangers claim that stars and other bodies form from the gravitational collapse of large dust clouds. This argument is circular as it assumes the preexistence of stars in the form of localized dust clouds which it claims are merely an early form of stars. It is not explained where these dust clouds came from or how they became localized. If the localized clouds came from a larger dust cloud, why did not the larger cloud collapse?

Secondly, even if one assumes that localized dust clouds exist, the laws of physics would prevent them from gravitationally collapsing. In order to collapse, a dust cloud of gas would have to be put under pressure, but there is no pressure in outer space. Even under pressure and gravitation, dust cloud gas is resistant to collapse. Hydrogen and helium gas that is released on the pressurized surface of the Earth will quickly escape into outer space. Yet according to Big Bangers, stars which mostly consist of hydrogen gas, formed from unpressurized clouds of this gas.

The Big Bang theory fails to provide any viable means of star or planet formation. Even if it is argued that some process exists by which a star could form under unusual conditions, such a process would not be sufficient. Star formation is the workhorse of any physical theory of origins. Since there are approximately one septillion stars in the observable universe, the process by which they form should readily occur.

The failure of mainstream science to explain star formation is admitted in its accepted publications:

“We don’t understand how a single star forms, yet we want to understand how 10 billion stars form.” Carlos Frenk, as quoted by Robert Irion, “Surveys Scour the Cosmic Deep,” Science, Vol. 303, 19 March 2004, p. 1750.”

“Nobody really understands how star formation proceeds. It’s really remarkable.” Rogier A. Windhorst, as quoted by Corey S. Powell, “A Matter of Timing,” Scientific American, Vol. 267, October 1992, p. 30.

[13] According to quantum field theory the gravitational field is transmitted by field particles known as virtual anti-gravitons. These particles are called virtual because they cannot be directly detected, even in theory, due to the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle. The particles are similar to virtual photons and anti-photons which transmit forces between electric charges. In some ways virtual particles are theoretical constructs, used to explain forces as no one can directly confirm their existence.

However, if one assumes they exist, one can detect them by forcing them to violate the Uncertainty Principle. If one accelerates electric charges, some of the virtual photons or anti-photons in the electric fields of the charges are forced to violate the Uncertainty Principle and become real photons. Radio transmitters make use of this fact because when they accelerate electric charges in a radio antenna, virtual photons become real photons in the form of radio waves.

Virtual anti-gravitons have the prefix “anti” because they are a form of antimatter. They are identical to normal matter gravitons except that they travel backward in time or at least behave as if they do. If bodies such as the Earth and the Moon exchange field particles composed of normal matter, the bodies would recoil or repel each other due to the momentum carried by the transmitted particles. The situation is analogous to two ice skaters on a frozen lake throwing a basketball back and forth. The momentum of the basketball will cause the skaters to slide away from each other. However, if two bodies exchanged anti-particles, which move backward in time, the two bodies would only repel each other if one videotaped them and ran the videotape backwards. If one ran the tape forwards, the two bodies would attract each other. Since gravity is attractive, it must be transmitted by anti-particles.

Each planet and star exists in a virtual cloud of anti-gravitons due to its gravitational field. Anti-gravitons have a rest mass of zero, but since they have energy, they effectively have mass via the mass-energy equivalence. The virtual cloud of anti-gravitons has a mass equal to the combined mass of all its constituent particles. This mass is equal to the mass-energy equivalence of the energy stored in the gravitational field.

Like other bodies that possess mass, the virtual anti-graviton cloud attracts itself under gravity. However, since the anti-graviton cloud is composed of time-reversed particles, the attraction is time reversed which means the cloud repels itself in the time forward direction.

One important consequence of the anti-graviton cloud is that it causes the effective gravity at the center of any heavenly body to become negative. According to classical physics gravity drops to zero at the center of any heavenly body so at some point near the center the repulsive effect of the body’s anti-graviton cloud will overwhelm gravity. Thus if there were a chamber at the center of the Earth to which one could travel, one would have to walk on the ceiling of the chamber as one would fall up rather than down. More generally, elements of highest density would tend to settle some distance away from the center pushing elements of lower density into the center.

A similar situation occurs at the center of a galaxy as a galaxy is a concentration of mass similar to that of a heavenly body. The effective gravity at the center of a galaxy cannot become negative; otherwise gravitationally bound bodies could not exist there. However, gravity at the center is greatly lessened. If the Earth were moved to the center of its galaxy, its surface gravity would lower significantly.

A third, slightly different, situation occurs if two masses are near each other. In such a situation gravity is reduced along a line intersecting the two masses. This situation is observed in the case of ocean tides caused by the Moon. The interaction of the anti-graviton clouds of the Moon and the Earth causes an observable reduction of gravity on the surface of the Earth directly facing the Moon and on the opposite side of the Earth, furthest away from the Moon. As a result ocean levels rise in these areas. Since the Earth rotates along its axis once a day, coastal areas experience two daily tides. Tides cannot be explained using the direct gravity of the moon as this gravity is only one ten-millionth of what is needed to produce the near side tide and fails totally in explaining the far side tide. (See also The Trouble with Tides by Miles Mathis).

If a heavenly body is small and not too dense, the repulsion of its anti-graviton cloud is overwhelmed as a whole by the gravitational attraction of the body. However if the body gets larger or more dense, the repulsion may become significant enough to split the body into two areas of high density. Such splitting does not require much energy. Gravity may still act to keep the body completely intact and seemingly spherical. A further increase in the size or density of the body may cause the regions of high density to completely separate and split the body into separate entities as happens in the formation of binary stars.

Anti-gravitons are also important to the growth of heavenly bodies in Growing Earth Theory. A natural explanation for the growing earth is quantum mechanical tunneling, a process by which particles can pass or “tunnel” through a barrier even though they do not have enough energy to surmount the barrier. These particles essentially disappear from one side of the barrier and reappear on the other side. Due to the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle they cannot be detected passing through the barrier and thus tunneling is not a detectable violation of the laws of physics. Atoms which undergo radioactive decay release particles from their nuclei by means of tunneling.

One might imagine atoms in the Sun tunneling through the barrier of space between the Sun and the Earth and reappearing in the interior of the Earth. However, atoms and even sub-atomic particles, like the electron, are far too massive to tunnel appreciable distances. But massless particles can and one of these, the anti-graviton, already does, as the tunneling of anti-gravitons is the means by which gravitational forces are transmitted.

The self-repulsive forces of the Sun are presumably much greater than that of the Earth, and to minimize the total self-repulsion, anti-gravitons act to transfer more energy from the Earth to the Sun than in the opposite direction. What is not known is how energy received by the Earth is converted into atoms, which under classical physics is considered to be mass. Presumably there exists quantum uncertainty about the number of atoms of each specific element that the Earth contains at any one time. If the Earth could be determined to have n atoms of iron at time t, a new determination might even in theory not be possible until time t + d. During the interval d, enough energy may have arrived for there suddenly to be n + r atoms of iron. Determining which atoms of iron are new would not be easy as all iron atoms are identical. One might try to determine new atoms based on location, but there exists quantum uncertainty about the new locations of the old atoms. Unless there exists a means in theory of determining a violation of the laws of physics, then quantum mechanics allows anything to occur.

[14] This theory of space fusion is analogous to the fusion of hydrogen and other atoms in stars.

[15] Spherical galaxies are presumed to elongate into eccentric elliptical galaxies before splitting into a pair of oppositely rotating spiral galaxies. Due to the rotation of the spiral galaxies, one can deduce that opposite sides of any spherical galaxy have oppositely directed angular momentum. It is clear that stars in a spherical galaxy do not have orbital angular momentum for they could not orbit without each star being thrown off course by the orbits of all the other stars, none of which would orbit in the same orbital plane. Thus the observed angular momentum must be due to the rotation of stars.

[16] Ancient Life’s Gravity and its Implications for the Expanding Earth by Stephen Hurrell.

[17] According to the Wikipedia, "[Spiral galaxies] are mostly found in low-density regions and are rare in the centers of galaxy clusters."